Concentration of credit risk
Financial instruments with potential credit risk consist primarily of trade and finance receivables and short-term and long-term investments. Additionally, to a lesser extent, we have a potential credit risk associated with counterparties to derivative contracts.
Trade receivables are primarily short-term receivables from independently owned and operated dealers and customers which arise in the normal course of business. We perform regular credit evaluations of our dealers and customers. Collateral generally is not required, and the majority of our trade receivables are unsecured. We do, however, when deemed necessary, make use of various devices such as security agreements and letters of credit to protect our interests. No single dealer or customer represents a significant concentration of credit risk.
Finance receivables and wholesale inventory receivables primarily represent receivables under installment sales contracts, receivables arising from leasing transactions and notes receivable. We generally maintain a secured interest in the equipment financed. No single customer or dealer represents a significant concentration of credit risk.
Short-term and long-term investments are held with high quality institutions and, by policy, the amount of credit exposure to any one institution is limited. Long-term investments, primarily included in Other assets in Statement 3, are comprised primarily of available-for-sale securities at Insurance Services.
For derivative contracts, collateral is generally not required of the counterparties or of our company.  The company generally enters into International Swaps and Derivatives Association (ISDA) master netting agreements within Machinery & Power Systems and Financial Products that permit the net settlement of amounts owed under their respective derivative contracts.  Our exposure to credit loss in the event of nonperformance by the counterparties is limited to only those gains that we have recorded, but for which we have not yet received cash payment. The master netting agreements reduce the amount of loss the company would incur should the counterparties fail to meet their obligations.  At December 31, 2013, 2012 and 2011, the maximum exposure to credit loss, including accrued interest, was $251 million, $366 million and $443 million, respectively, before the application of any master netting agreements.  Please refer to Note 18 and Table III above for fair value information.